The nineteenth century witnessed the foundation of two new religions in the Mekong River Delta. They were Cao Dai and Hoa Hao.
Cao Dai, a type of reformed Buddhism, became popular with the rural population of the southern delta. Hoa Hao, popular in the southern most delta region, is more bent towards traditional Buddhism. Both the organizations tried to save themselves during the rise of communism by remaining neutral but by 1975 they were being pressurized to join the communist cause.